Ride the Lightning is the second studio album by the American heavy metal band Metallica. It was released on July 27, 1984 through the independent record label Megaforce Records and was re-released on November 19, 1984 by Elektra Records. Ride the Lightning was certified gold by the RIAA on November 5, 1987 and was most recently certified 5x platinum on June 9, 2003.
Ride the Lightning retains the speed of Kill 'Em All on songs like "Trapped Under Ice" and "Fight Fire with Fire", but also contains the first of Metallica's longer, more intricate tracks, such as "Fade to Black" and the nearly 9-minute closing instrumental "The Call of Ktulu". "Ride the Lightning" is the last Metallica album to credit former member, Dave Mustaine.
Ride the Lightning was listed at number 3 on a list compiled by metal-rules.com of the Top 100 Metal Albums of All Time and #5 by IGN Music on the Top 25 Metal Albums.
Q magazine (Summer/01, p. 127) - 5 stars out of 5 - "Reaffirms their status as the pre-eminent metal band of the modern era....They broke with the conventions of thrash metal to record the genre's first power ballad in 'Fade to Black'".
Kerrang! (p. 50) - " melody, maturity and musical intelligence. It was these traits which helped them broaden metal's scope."
* "Fade to Black" was released as a promo single in 1984, in black vinyl & glow in the dark green.
* "For Whom the Bell Tolls" was released as a promo single with two versions of the song, an edited version on side A and the album version on side B.
* "Creeping Death" was released as a single, with the b-side also known as Garage Days Revisited (precursor to 1987's The $5.98 E.P.: Garage Days Re-Revisited): covers of "Am I Evil?" (originally by Diamond Head) and "Blitzkrieg" (originally by Blitzkrieg). Both of the b-side cover songs were released on the Garage, Inc. compilation.
Metallica-Ride-The-Lightning-Green.jpegthumbrightThe misprinted version of the album cover.
In 1984, the French record label Bernett Records misprinted the color of the album cover, printing the cover in green, rather than blue. 400 copies with the green cover were pressed. Because of their rarity, this misprint caused these green albums to become a guaranteed collectors item.
Fight Fire with Fire
The introduction to "Fight Fire with Fire" displays Metallica's evolving towards a more harmonical style of songwriting. The lyrical themes focus on revenge and Armageddon. The focal point of the lyrics is the counterblow of a nuclear war which would cause the end of the world.
The song was covered by Apocalyptica on their album Cult, as well as by Polish death metal band Vader, released as a bonus track on their album Necropolis. Black metal band Abigail Williams also covered Fight Fire with Fire as a bonus track to their 2010 album In the Absence of Light.
The song is featured on Guitar Hero: Metallica, along with "For Whom the Bell Tolls", "Fade to Black" and "Creeping Death" from Ride the Lightning.
Ride the Lightning
"Ride the Lightning" is Metallica's first song which directly pointed on the misery of the criminal justice system; the lyrics are written from the perspective of someone who is forthcoming death-by-electrocution. The song is one of two on the album that credits former member Dave Mustaine.
For Whom the Bell Tolls
The lyrics of "For Whom the Bell Tolls" are based on the classic Ernest Hemingway novel by the same name; said novel is about the horror and dishonor of modern warfare.
The chromatic introduction, which was written by bassist Cliff Burton before joining Metallica, is often mistaken for an electric guitar; it is, in actuality, Cliff playing a bass guitar through distortion and a wah-wah pedal.
"For Whom the Bell Tolls" has been covered by numerous bands; most noteably, by punk rock band Shotgun Remedy on the album A Punk Tribute to Metallica, by Apocalyptica on the album Inquisition Symphony and by Sunn O))) on their album Flight of the Behemoth. It was also the opening song for the 2009 movie Zombieland.
Fade to Black
"Fade to Black" is a power ballad. The lyrics suggest a man contemplating, and eventually committing suicide. Musically, the song begins with an acoustic guitar introduction and becomes progressively heavier, similar to Metallica's future ballads, "Welcome Home (Sanitarium)", "One", and "The Day That Never Comes".
The solo of "Fade to Black", written by Kirk Hammett, it was ranked number 24 on the "100 Best Solos Ever Reader's Choice" in the September 1998 issue of Guitar World.
Many notable bands have covered "Fade to Black", including Apocalyptica, Apoptygma Berzerk, Disturbed, Sonata Arctica, Steel Prophet, The Lemonheads, and Iron Horse.
Metallica revealed that they have received letters from fans who were dissuaded from committing suicide by the song.
Trapped Under Ice
"Trapped Under Ice" is about a person trapped in a cryogenics chamber. "Trapped Under Ice" is based upon a demo song of Kirk's former band Exodus which was called "Impaler", which was later released on their 2004 album Tempo of the Damned.
Until the World Magnetic Tour, "Trapped Under Ice" had only ever appeared 5 times in its entirety in Metallica's live set. The first two times the song was performed live in Poperinge, Belgium on November 17, 1984, Paris, France on November 18, 1984, Frolundaborg, Gothenburg on February 13, 1987, then again in Chicago, Illinois on January 5, 2000 and finally in Peoria, Illinois on August 24, 2004. James Hetfield commented on the song appearing once again on their live show's setlist on stage with: "Some guy asked us to play this song before the show. We haven't played it in like 15 years. So don't blame us for the fuck ups."
The song is playable track in Guitar Hero:World Tour.
"Trapped Under Ice" was covered by parody metal band Austrian Death Machine on the 2009 album Double Brutal.
Originally named "The Hammer," the song "Escape" is about an escaped prisoner on the run. Metallica have never played the song in its entirety live; however, during the encore on the last show of the World Magnetic Tour, it was jammed.
"Escape" was covered by the American metal band Hatebreed on their 2009 album For the Lions and also French progressive death metal band Gojira.
"Creeping Death" describes the Plague of the Death of the Firstborn (Exodus 12:29). The lyrics deal with the 10 plagues on Egypt, and throughout the song, four of the ten plagues are mentioned as well as the Passover.
The middle section of this song (with the recognisable lyrics "Die, by my hand!") was written by Kirk Hammett in his former band Exodus for the song "Die By His Hand". The song was recorded and released by Exodus as a demo, but never appeared on an album.
"Creeping Death" was covered by Welsh glam metal band Tigertailz for a B-side in 1990, Welsh metalcore band Bullet for My Valentine on Kerrang!s 25th Anniversary Higher Voltage compilation disk, the Italian black metal band Stormlord as a live track on their EP The Curse Of Medusa, and by rock band Drowning Pool on the Ozzfest 2002 live album.
The Call of Ktulu
"The Call of Ktulu" was Metallica's second instrumental song, following the first instrumental "(Anesthesia) Pulling Teeth" from Kill 'Em All. The song working title was originally "When Hell Freezes Over".
The idea of the song "The Call of Ktulu" is based upon H.P. Lovecraft's book The Shadow Over Innsmouth which was first introduced to the rest of the band by Cliff Burton. The song's name was taken from one of H.P. Lovecraft's main stories featuring Cthulhu, The Call of Cthulhu, which was written in 1928 for the magazine Weird Tales. The name "Ktulu" is originally written "Cthulhu" by H.P. Lovecraft.
"The Call of Ktulu" is also the last song to include songwriting credit for Dave Mustaine. Mustaine later recorded the song "Hangar 18" for Megadeth's 1990 album Rust in Peace. Both songs have the same chord progression in the intro.
* James Hetfield – lead vocals, rhythm guitar
* Kirk Hammett – lead guitar
* Cliff Burton – bass, backing vocals
* Lars Ulrich – drums
* Metallica; Flemming Rasmussen; Mark Whitaker – producers
* Flemming Rasmussen – engineer
* George Marino – remastering
Since the beginning of the Sound-Scan era in 1991, Ride the Lightning has sold 4,334,000 copies.
Category:Megaforce Records albums
Category:Elektra Records albums
Category:Vertigo Records albums
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vls:Ride The LightningThis text has been derived from Ride the Lightning on Wikipedia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License 3.0
Metallica () is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California, formed in 1981.
The band was founded when James Hetfield responded to an advertisement that drummer Lars Ulrich had posted in a local newspaper. The current line-up features long-time lead guitarist Kirk Hammett (who joined the band in 1983) and bassist Robert Trujillo (a member since 2003) alongside Hetfield and Ulrich. Notable previous members of the band include former lead guitarist Dave Mustaine (who later went on to found the band Megadeth) and former bassists Ron McGovney, Cliff Burton and Jason Newsted. The band also had a long collaboration with producer Bob Rock, who produced all of the bands albums from 1990 to 2003 and served as a temporary bassist between the departure of Newsted and the hiring of Trujillo.
Metallica's early releases included fast tempos, instrumentals, and aggressive musicianship that placed the band as one of the founding "big four" of thrash metal alongside Slayer, Megadeth, and Anthrax. The band earned a growing fan-base in the underground music community and critical acclaim, with its third album Master of Puppets (1986) described as one of the most influential and "heavy" thrash metal albums. Metallica achieved substantial commercial success with their eponymous fifth album (also known as The Black Album), which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. With this release the band expanded its musical direction resulting in an album that appealed to a more mainstream audience.
In 2000, Metallica was among a number of artists who filed a lawsuit against Napster for sharing the band's copyright-protected material for free without any band member's consent. A settlement was reached, and Napster became a pay-to-use service. Despite reaching number one on the Billboard 200, the release of St. Anger alienated many fans with the exclusion of guitar solos and the "steel-sounding" snare drum. A film titled Some Kind of Monster documented the recording process of St. Anger and the tensions within the band during that time.
Metallica has released nine studio albums, three live albums, two extended plays, 24 music videos, and 45 singles. The band has won nine Grammy Awards, and has had five consecutive albums debut at number one on the Billboard 200, making Metallica the first band to do so; this record was later matched by the Dave Matthews Band. The band's 1991 album, Metallica, has sold over 15 million copies in the United States, and 22 million copies worldwide, which makes it the 25th-best-selling album in the country. In December 2009, it became the best-selling album of the SoundScan era, surpassing 1997's Come On Over by country artist Shania Twain. The band has sold an estimated 100 million records worldwide as of the release of their latest album, Death Magnetic. As of December 2009, Metallica is the fourth best-selling music artist since the SoundScan era began tracking sales on May 25, 1991, selling a total of 52,672,000 albums in the United States alone.
Early years (1981–1983)
Metallica was formed in Los Angeles, California, in late 1981 when drummer Lars Ulrich placed an advertisement in a Los Angeles newspaper—The Recycler—which read "Drummer looking for other metal musicians to jam with Tygers of Pan Tang, Diamond Head and Iron Maiden." Guitarists James Hetfield and Hugh Tanner of Leather Charm answered the advertisement. Although he had not formed a band, Ulrich asked Metal Blade Records founder Brian Slagel if he could record a song for the label's upcoming compilation album Metal Massacre. Slagel accepted, and Ulrich recruited Hetfield to sing and play rhythm guitar. The band was officially formed in October 1981, five months after Ulrich and Hetfield first met.
Ulrich talked to his friend Ron Quintana, who was brainstorming names for a fanzine. Quintana had proposed the names MetalMania and Metallica. Ulrich used Metallica for the name of his band. A second advertisement was placed in The Recycler for a position as lead guitarist. Dave Mustaine answered, and after seeing his expensive guitar equipment, Ulrich and Hetfield recruited him. In early 1982, Metallica recorded its first original song "Hit the Lights" for the Metal Massacre I compilation. Hetfield played bass on the song and Lloyd Grant was credited with a guitar solo. Released on June 14, 1982, early pressings of Metal Massacre I listed the band incorrectly as "Mettallica". Although angered by the error, Metallica managed to create enough "buzz" with the song and the band played its first live performance on March 14, 1982 at Radio City in Anaheim, California with newly recruited bassist Ron McGovney. Metallica recorded its first demo, Power Metal, a name inspired by Quintana's early business cards in early 1982. In the fall of 1982, Ulrich and Hetfield attended a show at the West Hollywood nightclub Whisky a Go Go which featured bassist Cliff Burton in a band called Trauma. The two were "blown away" by Burton's use of a wah-wah pedal and asked him to join Metallica. Hetfield and Mustaine wanted McGovney out as they thought that he "didn't contribute anything, he just followed." Although Burton initially declined the offer, by the end of the year he accepted on the condition the band move to El Cerrito in the San Francisco Bay Area. Metallica's first live performance with Burton was at the nightclub The Stone in March 1983, and the first recording to feature Burton was the Megaforce demo (1983).
Metallica was ready to record its debut album, but when Metal Blade was unable to cover the additional cost, the band began looking for other options. Concert promoter Johny "Z" Zazula, who had heard the demo No Life 'til Leather (1982), offered to broker a record deal with Metallica and New York City-based record labels. After receiving no interest from various record labels, Zazula borrowed the money to cover the record's recording budget and signed Metallica to his own label, Megaforce Records.
Kill 'Em All and Ride the Lightning (1983–1984)
In May 1983, Metallica traveled to Rochester, New York to record its debut album, Metal Up Your Ass, with production duties handled by Paul Curcio. Band members decided to kick Mustaine out of the band due to drug and alcohol abuse and violent behavior just prior to the sessions on April 11, 1983. Exodus guitarist Kirk Hammett flew in to replace Mustaine the same afternoon.
Mustaine, who went on to found Megadeth, has expressed his dislike for Hammett in interviews. He said Hammett "stole my job." Mustaine was "pissed off" because he believes Hammett became popular by playing the guitar leads that Mustaine wrote. In a 1985 interview with Metal Forces, Mustaine slammed Hammett saying, "it's real funny how Kirk Hammett ripped off every lead break I'd played on that No Life 'til Leather tape and got voted No. 1 guitarist in your magazine." On Megadeth's debut album Killing Is My Business... and Business Is Good! (1985), Mustaine included the song "Mechanix", which Metallica renamed to "The Four Horsemen" on Kill 'Em All. Mustaine said he did this to "straighten Metallica up", as Metallica referred to Mustaine as a drunk and said he could not play guitar. Metallica's first live performance with Hammett was on April 16, 1983 at the nightclub The Showplace in Dover, New Jersey.
The band's debut album was initially to be titled Metal Up Your Ass. Due to conflicts with its record label and the distributors' refusal to release an album with that name, it was renamed Kill 'Em All. Released on Megaforce Records in the United States and Music for Nations in Europe, the album reached number 120 on the Billboard 200 in 1988, and although the album was not initially a financial success, it earned Metallica a growing fan base in the underground metal scene. The band embarked on the Kill 'Em All for One tour with Raven to support the release. In February 1984, Metallica supported Venom on the Seven Dates of Hell tour, where the band performed in front of 7,000 people at the Aardschok Festival in Zwolle, Netherlands.
Metallica recorded its second studio album, Ride the Lightning, at Sweet Silence Studios in Copenhagen, Denmark. Released in August 1984, the album reached number 100 on the Billboard 200. A French printing press mistakenly printed green covers for the album, which are now considered collectors' items. Other songs on the album include "For Whom the Bell Tolls", "Fade to Black", "Creeping Death" (which tells the biblical story of the Hebrews' exodus from slavery in Egypt, focusing on the final plague that was visited on the Egyptians), and the instrumental "The Call of Ktulu". Mustaine received writing credit for "Ride the Lightning" and "The Call of Ktulu".
Master of Puppets (1984–1986)
Metallica1986.jpgthumbMetallica in 1985
Elektra Records A&R director Michael Alago, and co-founder of Q-Prime Management Cliff Burnstein, attended a September 1984 Metallica concert. Impressed with what they saw, they signed Metallica to Elektra Records and made the band a client of Q-Prime Management. Metallica's burgeoning success was such that the band's British label Music for Nations released a limited edition "Creeping Death" single, which sold 40,000 copies as an import in the U.S. Two of the three songs on the record (cover versions of Diamond Head's "Am I Evil?", and Blitzkrieg's "Blitzkrieg") appeared on the 1989 Elektra reissue of Kill 'Em All. Metallica embarked on its first major European tour with Tank to an average crowd of 1,300. Returning to the U.S. marked a tour co-headlining with W.A.S.P. and Armored Saint supporting. Metallica played its largest show at the Monsters of Rock festival on August 17, 1985, with Bon Jovi and Ratt at Donington Park in England, playing in front of 70,000 people. A show in Oakland, California, at the Day on the Green festival saw the band play in front of a crowd of 60,000.
Metallica's third studio album, Master of Puppets, was recorded at Sweet Silence Studios and was released in March 1986. The album reached number 29 on the Billboard 200, and spent 72 weeks on the chart. The album was the band's first to be certified gold on November 4, 1986, and was certified six times platinum in 2003. Steve Huey of Allmusic considered the album "the band's greatest achievement". Following the release of the album, Metallica supported Ozzy Osbourne for a United States tour. Hetfield broke his wrist skateboarding down a hill and continued the tour performing vocals, with guitar technician John Marshall playing rhythm guitar.
Burton's death and Garage Days Re-Revisited (1986–1987)
Cliff Burton Memorial.PNGrightthumbA memorial for Burton in Ljungby, Sweden
On September 27, 1986, during the European leg of Metallica's Damage, Inc. Tour, members drew cards to see which bunk of the tour bus they would sleep in. Burton won and chose to sleep in Hammett's bunk. Around dawn near Dörarp, Sweden, the bus driver lost control and skidded, which caused the bus to flip several times. Ulrich, Hammett, and Hetfield sustained no serious injuries; however, bassist Burton was pinned under the bus and was killed. Hetfield recalls, "I saw the bus lying right on him. I saw his legs sticking out. I freaked. The bus driver, I recall, was trying to yank the blanket out from under him to use for other people. I just went, 'Don't fucking do that!' I already wanted to kill the . I don't know if he was drunk or if he hit some ice. All I knew was, he was driving and Cliff wasn't alive anymore." Burton's death left Metallica's future in doubt. The three remaining members decided that Burton would want them to carry on, and with the Burton family's blessings, the band sought a replacement.
Roughly 40 people tried out for auditions including Hammett's childhood friend, Les Claypool of Primus, Troy Gregory of Prong, and Jason Newsted, formerly of Flotsam and Jetsam. Newsted learned Metallica's entire setlist, and after the audition Metallica invited him to Tommy's Joynt in San Francisco. Hetfield, Ulrich, and Hammett decided that Newsted was the one to replace Burton, and Newsted's first live performance with Metallica was at the Country Club in Reseda, California. The members took it on themselves to "initiate" Newsted by tricking him into eating a ball of wasabi.
After Newsted joined Metallica, the band left its El Cerrito practice space (dubbed "the Metalli-mansion", a suburban house formerly rented by sound engineer Mark Whitaker) and relocated to the adjacent cities of Berkeley and Albany before eventually settling in the Marin County city of San Rafael, North of San Francisco.
Metallica finished its tour in the early months of 1987. In March 1987, Hetfield broke his wrist a second time skateboarding, forcing the band to cancel a Saturday Night Live appearance. In August 1987 an all-covers extended play titled The $5.98 E.P.: Garage Days Re-Revisited was released. The extended play was recorded in an effort to utilize the band's newly constructed recording studio, test out the talents of Newsted, and to relieve grief and stress following the death of Burton. A video titled Cliff 'Em All was released in 1987 commemorating Burton's three years in Metallica. Footage included bass solos, home videos, and pictures.
…And Justice for All (1988–1990)
Jason Newsted.pngrightthumbNewsted performing live in 1989
…And Justice for All, the band's first studio album since Burton's death, was released in 1988. The album was a commercial success, reaching number six on the Billboard 200, the band's first album to enter the top 10. The album was certified platinum nine weeks after its release. Newsted's bass was purposely turned down on the album as a part of the continuous "hazing" he received, and his musical ideas were ignored (However, he did receive writing credit on the track "Blackened"). There were complaints with the production; namely, Steve Huey of Allmusic noted Ulrich's drums were clicking more than thudding, and the guitars "buzz thinly". The Damaged Justice tour followed to promote the album.
In 1989, Metallica received its first Grammy Award nomination for …And Justice for All, in the new Best Hard Rock/Metal Performance Vocal or Instrument category. Metallica was the favorite to win; however, the award was given to Jethro Tull for the album Crest of a Knave. The result generated controversy among fans and the press, as Metallica was standing off-stage waiting to receive the award after performing the song "One". Jethro Tull had been advised by its manager not to attend the ceremony as he was expecting Metallica to win.Rockin' on an island, Kerrang! Issue no. 258, September 30, 1989 The award was named in Entertainment Weeklys "Grammy's 10 Biggest Upsets".
Following the release of …And Justice for All, Metallica released its debut music video for the song "One". The band performed the song in an abandoned warehouse, and footage was remixed with the film, Johnny Got His Gun. Rather than organize an ongoing licensing deal, Metallica purchased the rights to the film. The remixed video was submitted to MTV, with the alternate performance-only version held back in the event that MTV banned the remix version. MTV accepted the remix version, and the video was viewers' first exposure to Metallica. It was voted number 38 in 1999 when MTV aired its "Top 100 Videos of All Time" countdown, and was featured in the network's 25th Anniversary edition of ADD Video, which showcased the most popular videos on MTV in the last 25 years.
In October 1990, Metallica entered One on One studio in North Hollywood to record its next album. Bob Rock, who had worked with the bands such as The Cult, Bon Jovi, and Mötley Crüe, was hired as the producer. Metallica (also known as The Black Album) was remixed three times, cost $1 million, and ended three marriages. Although the release was stalled until 1991, Metallica debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, selling 650,000 units in its first week. The album was responsible for bringing Metallica to the attention of the mainstream and has been certified 15 times platinum in the United States, which makes it the 26th best-selling album in the country. The making of Metallica and the following tour was documented in A Year and a Half in the Life of Metallica. Dubbed the Wherever We May Roam Tour, it lasted 14 months and included dates in the United States, Japan, and the UK. In April 1992, Metallica appeared at the Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert, performing a two-song set. Hetfield later performed "Stone Cold Crazy" with the remaining members of Queen and Tony Iommi.McIver, Joel (2004)
On August 8, 1992, during the co-headlining Guns N' Roses/Metallica Stadium Tour with Guns N' Roses, Hetfield suffered second and third degree burns to his arms, face, hands, and legs. There was confusion with the new pyrotechnics setup, which resulted with Hetfield walking into a flame during "Fade to Black". Newsted recalls Hetfield's skin was "bubbling like on The Toxic Avenger". Guitar technician John Marshall, who had previously filled in on rhythm guitar and was now playing in Metal Church, replaced Hetfield for the remainder of the tour as Hetfield was unable to play guitar, although he was able to sing. The band's first box set was released in November 1993 called Live Shit: Binge & Purge. The collection contained three live CDs, three home videos, and a book filled with riders and letters.
Load, ReLoad, Garage Inc., and S&M (1994–1999)
After almost three years of touring to support Metallica, including a headlining performance at Woodstock '94, Metallica returned to the studio to write and record its sixth studio album. The band went on a brief hiatus in the summer of 1994 and played three outdoor shows which included headlining Donington Park in the United Kingdom, supported by Slayer, Skid Row, Slash's Snakepit, Therapy?, and Corrosion of Conformity. The short tour was titled Escape from the Studio '95. The band spent roughly one year writing and recording new songs, resulting in the release of Load in 1996, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and ARIA Charts, marking the band's second number one. The cover of Load was created by Andres Serrano, and was called Blood and Semen III. Serrano pressed a mixture of his own semen and bovine blood between sheets of plexiglass. The release marked a change in musical direction for the band and a new image with band members receiving haircuts. Metallica headlined the alternative rock festival Lollapalooza in the summer of 1996.
During early production of the album, the band had produced enough material for a double album. It was decided that half of the songs were to be released, and the band would continue to work on the remaining songs and release them the following year. This resulted in the follow-up album, ReLoad. The cover was created by Serrano, this time using a mixture of blood and urine. ReLoad debuted number one on the Billboard 200, and reached number two on the Top Canadian Album chart. Hetfield noted in the 2004 documentary film Some Kind of Monster that the songs on these albums were initially thought by the band to be of average quality, and were "polished and reworked" until judged to be releasable. To promote ReLoad, Metallica performed on NBC's Saturday Night Live in December 1997, performing "Fuel" and "The Memory Remains" with Marianne Faithfull.
In 1998, Metallica compiled a double album of cover songs titled Garage Inc.. The first disc contained newly recorded covers of songs by bands such as Diamond Head, Killing Joke, The Misfits, Thin Lizzy, Mercyful Fate, and Black Sabbath. The second disc featured the original The $5.98 E.P.: Garage Days Re-Revisited, which had become a scarce collectors' item. The album entered the Billboard 200 at number two.
On April 21 and April 22, 1999, Metallica recorded two performances with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra conducted by Michael Kamen. Kamen, who had previously worked with producer Rock on "Nothing Else Matters", approached the band in 1991 with the idea of pairing Metallica's music with a symphony orchestra. Kamen and his staff of over 100 composed additional orchestral material for Metallica songs. Metallica wrote two new Kamen-scored songs for the event, "No Leaf Clover" and "−HumanHumanThis text has been derived from Metallica on Wikipedia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License 3.0